tim: Tim with short hair, smiling, wearing a black jacket over a white T-shirt (Default)
[personal profile] tim
When I was a grad student at Portland State, during 2008-2010, I took a second job in addition to my research assistantship, doing scientific and technical editing for a company called American Journal Experts (AJE). AJE hires grad students to copy-edit academic articles written by authors whose first language wasn't English. The rates they pay are very low -- because the rates are based on the article length rather than on time spent, and because many papers were in seriously poor shape, I usually found it necessary to spend so much time on a single paper that my rate came out to minimum wage or below. But, it was a job I could do from home at any hour of the day, and because my research assistantship didn't come with health insurance, I had very little choice but to take a second job so I could pay the student health insurance premiums (which tripled in cost during the four years I was at Portland State).

Anyway, AJE hired grad students as independent contractors, and for all I know, they still do. However, in the US, "independent contractor" is a term with a very specific meaning. A company can't just hire anybody they want to as a contractor -- they have to follow certain rules for how they treat that individual. As AJE began to exert more and more control over how I did my editing work, I began to think that I was really an employee, so I filed an SS-8 form with the IRS to request reclassification as an employee. That was in April 2010.

I never got a reply from the IRS beyond the initial one saying my letter had been received... until this past weekend, when I happened to be at my former housemate's house for a party and she handed me a letter that had been sent to me there. The letter was dated January 2013 and in it, the IRS stated that I had indeed been an employee of American Journal Experts, as per the legal definition of what "employee" and "independent contractor" mean in the tax code. The letter also stated that normally, the IRS tries to get both sides of the case in an SS-8 reclassification -- the employee and the employer -- but that AJE never replied to their request. I guess this may have been why it took more than two and a half years for the IRS to process my SS-8. (I was surprised by the length of time, since in 2006 when I requested (and was granted) reclassification as an employee after I'd worked as a contractor for Laszlo Systems, I received a response from the IRS very promptly.)

What this means for me concretely is that although I paid self-employment tax for the years when I worked for AJE, I didn't really have to, because AJE should have been paying half of my FICA taxes. Unfortunately for me, the statute of limitations on tax refunds is three years (from when I filed my return), so I can only file an amended return for 2010; 2009 and 2008 are water under the bridge.

This means something for a lot of other people as well: AJE has hundreds of grad student contractors, or rather, employees, and because their jobs are no different from my former job, they can all file SS-8 forms as well. I don't know what will happen if AJE continues to hire new employees while misclassifying them as contractors.

To help anyone who might want to do this, here's a PDF link to my filled-out SS-8 form that I submitted in 2010. The form mentions an auxiliary letter, and here's another PDF containing both that letter, and the reply I received from the IRS 2 1/2 years later. The IRS really gets a bad rap, but both times I've gone through the SS-8 process, I've been impressed by the clarity and thoroughness of the letters I've received in response. My auxiliary letter mentions some supporting documents that I haven't included in the PDFs, but if you want to see the whole package for whatever reason, let me know.

At this point, you might be saying, "what's the big deal, Tim? Don't companies abuse independent contractor status in this way all the time?" Yeah, they do, but I think it's a big deal every time that they do, because every time that they do, it's one more reminder to all of us that corporations get all of the privileges of being people and none of the responsibilities. If people (specifically poor and working-class people and people of color) get punished when they break the law, corporations should have to follow the law too, whether or not they like the laws, and whether or not the laws are convenient to follow.

Feel free to pass around this link to people -- it's public -- either because they've worked for AJE, or because they've done similar work, or just because they want an example of a filled-out SS-8.

(no subject)

Date: 2013-02-27 05:46 am (UTC)
From: [personal profile] hsenag
Given that you filed the form in 2010, is there any possibility of getting round the statute of limitations?

(no subject)

Date: 2013-02-27 06:41 am (UTC)
From: [personal profile] hsenag
Might be worth just filing all the amended tax returns together with a note explaining why the 2008 and 2009 ones are out of time: without the determination, is there anything else you could have done?

(no subject)

Date: 2013-02-27 07:05 am (UTC)
synecdochic: torso of a man wearing jeans, hands bound with belt (Default)
From: [personal profile] synecdochic
in general, i have been very pleased with every interaction i've ever had with the IRS. their website's really good, too, and they're really good at explaining things simply and clearly.

the bad rap they get is from many, many years ago; they had a massive internal culture shift in the 90s, and they've really worked to fix a lot of internal problems. i think people just dread dealing with them because of the cultural narrative that says the IRS is a faceless, merciless, thoughtless bureaucracy, which hasn't been true for a long damn time.

(if you're interested, btw, this book was awesome: Confessions of a Tax Collector: One Man's Tour of Duty Inside the IRS.)

(no subject)

Date: 2013-03-04 11:47 pm (UTC)
gender_euphoric: (Default)
From: [personal profile] gender_euphoric
any chance the DOL has worked on a class action lawsuit against them to make sure you got paid at least minimum wage?
I recently got a direct deposit from the department of labor because _kgb (kind of like being a chacha guide--a home-based question answering job) incorrectly classed people as independent contractors when we were clearly employees. The settlement I received brought me to minimum wage for every hour earned.

Very belated thank you!

Date: 2016-06-23 10:04 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] gracelessglobetrotting.wordpress.com
Just wanted to say THANKS for posting this. I was also an AJE editor for a couple years and used your example to help with my own SS-8 paperwork. AJE did respond to the IRS this time (and sent them a screenshot of my Upwork profile as "proof" to falsely claim that I breached the noncompete clause of the contract, so beware, others considering this), but the IRS determined me to be an employee as well.

AJE contractors Union

Date: 2017-01-09 10:49 am (UTC)
From: [personal profile] jellyfish9
Great post Tim,

I know this won't be of much help to you anymore as you're no longer with AJE, but I just wanted to mention for anyone else that still is, there's a forum set up so contract editors can communicate with each other. It seems like much of the power imbalance from AJE to its contract editors comes from the latter being a disconnected group of individuals. Perhaps by banding together, we can all help each other out. The forum is at: http://AJEcontractorsUnion.freeforums.net/

Also Tim if you want to take part just to share your experiences, that could be cool too!

Re: AJE contractors Union

Date: 2017-01-11 09:56 am (UTC)
From: [personal profile] jellyfish9
Absolutely, I'll post up links to this post and the forms you generated (which are super helpful by the way).

One question I had for you: Do you have any advice on how to reach out to more contract editors and grow the forum? Obviously it only works if people know about it, but editors are mostly anonymous to each other so it's hard to find them and get them involved in the forum.


tim: Tim with short hair, smiling, wearing a black jacket over a white T-shirt (Default)
Tim Chevalier

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